Our students and colleagues often ask us how to motivate people to attend meetings. If you face a “motivational problem” in meetings that you convene or facilitate, please take a few moments to ask yourself some important questions.
Recall a meeting to which you were invited and felt really motivated to attend.
What was it about the invitation that contributed to your motivation?
Did the topic interest you?
Was it clear why your presence was important?
Were the time and place convenient for you?
Then recall what happened when you arrived at that meeting.
What organizational and logistical elements motivated your participation?
Did you feel welcome?
Was the work plan (agenda and expected outcomes) clear?
Did the meeting room have natural light and good ventilation?
Was the coffee and refreshment table close at hand?
Did the session begin and end on time?
Finally, recall your degree of satisfaction at the end of the meeting.
What elements of the experience contributed to your feeling that this was a good use of your time?
Did you spend more time interacting with the ideas presented and the other participants than listening to speakers, or observing long, ritualistic protocols?
Were the results of the meeting and the next steps clearly articulated?
Did the meeting organizer express gratitude for the contributions of the group?
Now, apply the lessons from your own experience to the planning of the meetings that you convene or facilitate.
Personal motivation is directly related to the clarity and relevance of the initial invitation, the participatory dynamics during the event, and the usefulness of the meeting results.
IIFAC offers coaching to help organizers plan meetings that motivate participation and produce results. Contact us to schedule a free consultation to discuss your needs.
Sharing responsibility for the facilitation of a complex meeting or a large event such as a workshop or conference presents challenges and opportunities that are different from those we face when facilitating alone.
Benefits of co-facilitation
Diversity. Collaboration between facilitators of different gender, ethnicity, nationality, age, etc. sends a positive message about the value of diversity in leadership and brings a broader perspective to the group’s process.
Stress management. Long meetings can be truly exhausting for one facilitator. Rotating the facilitation duties is a good way to care for yourself and the group.
Letting go. If you tend to believe that “I have to do it all myself, or it doesn’t get done right,” practicing co-facilitation may help you break this pattern of control.
Backup. If one facilitator becomes overwhelmed, ill, injured or is called away for an emergency, the meeting can continue with the other facilitator(s).
Build confidence and capacity. Working with a more experienced facilitator, watching how they work and anticipating what you can do to make her job easier is a good way to gain confidence, especially in potentially intimidating situations, such as large or conflictive meetings.
Joy. Working in a team can be a delight!
Tips for successful co-facilitation
One leader. To simplify communication with the client or organizing committee, designate one person as the contact person and leader of the co-facilitation team.
Clarify roles/tasks. Co-facilitators should meet before the meeting to plan how they will work together. Who will facilitate first? What tasks will the others perform when not facilitating? How often will we exchange roles? What unobtrusive signals will we use to communicate our needs to each other during the meeting? If the facilitators are being paid, how will the money be divided?
Post-meeting evaluation. Get together after the meeting to discuss what went well and what could be improved in the future.
Spirit of service. Be humble. Pay attention. Serve the group well.
Do not co-facilitate with a stranger. If you do not know a proposed co-facilitator, try to observe him facilitate and establish a collegial relationship before agreeing to co-facilitate. At a minimum, meet with the person in advance to get to know more about his experience and facilitation style. Discussing roles and mutual expectations can avoid unpleasant surprises for both the two of you and the group.
Recognize rank issues. If you are a very experienced facilitator working with a relative newcomer, resist the temptation to jump in and take over. Simply serve as the assistant. If you coach the person during the meeting, do so sparingly and discretely. If you are an inexperienced facilitator, spend time as an apprentice before you try co-facilitating. Trying to learn in the heat of a large meeting will not help you or the group.
Never publicly criticize or argue with your co-facilitator during the meeting. This behavior will only serve to damage your relationship and lose the trust of the group. If necessary, talk to the facilitator at a break or quietly ask the group to take a break so you can discuss an issue.
Do not change roles too often. It is important that the group have a sense of stability and continuity during the meeting. Changing facilitators too often can be confusing, especially if their styles are very different.
As consultants in participatory processes, we have observed that many organizations plan their special events such as conferences, workshops, forums, assemblies, etc. differently than their everyday business meetings.
We wonder, “What do these two kinds of events have in common? What are the differences between them? And “What can we learn from one to strengthen the participants’ experience in the other?”
The following chart invites reflection on the success factors for participatory processes. Put a ? to indicate the presence of these elements in your events and meetings.
Every day meeting
Planned in advance
Has a budget assigned
Location is chosen with care
Organizing committee in charge
Invitation directed toward a specific public
Purpose is clear and shared with all
Program designed to stimulate interest in attending
Participants have ample opportunity to contribute to the discussion
Time is allotted for each activity and time limits are respected
Someone is responsible for preparing/leading each activity
Program is outcome-oriented
Physical needs and the well being of participants are taken into consideration
Relevant information is shared in advance
Results, commitments and next steps are promptly communicated after the event
Support roles (facilitation, welcome, translators, documentation, food, etc.) are assigned or contracted
Bosses, directors, decision-makers are involved in the planning and present at the event
Final thought: All your meetings, special or everyday, deserve both careful planning and an outcome-oriented focus.
Need help improving your everyday meeting or planning a special event? Contact us to schedule a free consultation to discuss your needs.
Facilitating a participatory process is not the job of one person. Even though those who are in the role of facilitator usually stand in front of the group where we can see and be seen by all the participants, | we should not be the only ones actively supporting the group process.
Consider some of the tasks that need to be attended to in order for a meeting to go well. In your experience, which of these are clearly the job of the facilitator? (Note: If you do not usually have a facilitator, who does these tasks?)
A. Planning the agenda
B. Issuing the invitation
C. Recommending meeting room size and layout
D. Reserving the meeting room
E. Preparing material to be shared during the session
F. Arranging the chairs
G. Controlling the room temperature
H. Welcoming people as they arrive
I. Keeping track of the time during the session
J. Focusing the conversation
K. Detecting and working with conflicts
L. Seeking agreement and carrying out the decision-making process
M. Taking photos of the group
N. Cleaning up the room after the meeting
O. Editing and sharing the meeting minutes
If any one person (including the group leader) is doing all or most of these jobs, STOP! Consider the negative consequences of this approach, including the following three possibilities.
Diluted focus. The facilitator’s energy and attention are diluted, making him/her less effective in the key parts of the job. (Which of the activities listed above do you think are among the facilitator’s primary tasks? See our answer at the end of this article.)
Lack of shared ownership. When other members of the group are deprived of the opportunity to share responsibility for their own process, they tend to become passive, apathetic and/or disconnected from the needs of the group as a whole. They think of themselves merely as meeting “attendees” or ”observers,” not as active participants in a collaborative initiative.
Burnout. Relying only on the designated facilitator to handle all aspects of the meeting process is unsustainable. Sooner or later, the facilitator becomes exhausted, frustrated, angry. Worse yet, this facilitator feels like a failure, which in a way is true. He or she has failed to grasp that effective facilitation is a team endeavor.
ACTION: Have a conversation with your team or group about the process-related jobs that need to be done before, during and after every meeting. Ask yourselves “Who is doing these jobs now? Who else could be recruited to help? What would be the possible risks and rewards of involving more people?”
Keep in mind that the role of the facilitator is to serve the group. No heroics. No martyrdom. Just good teamwork.
Answers: We think that the facilitator’s key tasks are A, C, H, I, J, K and L. Does this match your answers? Let us know in the Blog.
Want help sorting out your role in meetings? Contact us to schedule a free consultation to discuss your coaching needs.
While the primary tool for a group facilitator is his/her own, integral presence expressed through gestures, tone of voice and gaze, other technologies exist that can make our work more efficient and effective.
Here are seven tools that we have used successfully.
When people think about working in groups, they often focus on unpleasant aspects such as conflict, boredom or rampant egos. They almost never mention saying “thank you” as a memorable feature, probably because it so rarely appears on the agenda.
Common “thank you” protocols
Gratitude is typically expressed at the beginning of a work session (“Thank you all for being here today”) and after presentations, speeches or reports (“Thank you for those inspiring words,” etc.). Spoken by the group leader, these words are necessary, and omitting them would be a serious breach of protocol. But they rarely touch the heart.
In a similar way, the leader or facilitator usually says “thank you” after each person’s comment and at the end of a discussion. The main purpose of these words is to signal that the speaker or the topic under discussion is about to change.
Increasing the human dimension
If we want to introduce a little more human warmth into meetings, however, we need to create spaces where all the participants —not just the leader— can contribute to the “thanks-giving” experience,
One strategy is to include “thanks” as a topic in the agenda. Inserted after reviewing next steps and before the formal close, this is an opportunity for people to thank those whose contributions to the meeting were especially helpful, and also to colleagues and family members who made it possible for the speaker to attend the meeting.
Ideally, participants stand in a circle for the round of thanks. This allows them to see each other and also encourages them to keep their comments brief. Participation is voluntary and in no particular order. When all who want to speak have expressed their gratitude, the facilitator or the leader announces the formal close of the session.
The heartfelt words spoken in this circle can open new paths of communication and contribute to a sense of belonging within the group. People feel heard and seen. Sometimes even the boss or leader of the group receives recognition from team members that otherwise would be unlikely to occur.
Need help buiding the “human factor” into your meetings? Contact us to schedule a free consultation to discuss your coaching needs.
In the context of a meeting, the content experts are those who have knowledge and experience related to issues under discussion. They can be members of the group or invited guests. In either case their principal role is to share information and express their points of view.
While content experts can make valuable contributions to the group’s discussion or decision-making process, they present a special challenge for the group facilitator. Without meaning to cause harm, content experts can destroy a carefully prepared agenda by ignoring time limits set for their interventions.
Here are some steps that the facilitator can take to make content experts feel welcome and prevent them from usurping the meeting.
Before the meeting
Call or write the speakers to remind them of the date, time and location of the event and confirm their attendance.
Send a copy of the agenda, highlighting the time allotted for their presentation.
Ask if they plan to present any slides and/or distribute written materials.
In the case of written materials, find out if they will bring the copies or if the meeting organizer is to provide them. In the latter case, explain where to send the documents and the date by when they must be received.
If you do not already have it, request a brief (one paragraph) biography from each speaker.
Clarify with the meeting convener/host who will introduce the speakers. (Hint: recommend that it be the person who invited them and, presumably, knows them best.)
Decide with the meeting convener/host where the speakers will sit when they are not giving their presentations.
Plan a participatory process to engage the other members of the group in a discussion of the ideas presented.
On the day of the meeting
Personally greet the speakers, introducing yourself as the meeting facilitator.
Briefly review the room set up and schedule, answering any logistical questions.
THIS NEXT STEP IS CRUCIAL!
Ask how much warning they would like before their allotted speaking time is up.
Indicate where the timekeeper will be positioned and the cards to be used to indicate the remaining time.
Usually these precautions are sufficient to prevent content experts from exceeding their speaking time. If, however, they ignore all the warning signals and continue to talk, simply rise and move close to them. Your silent presence will remind them of their previous agreements with you and they will bring their remarks to a close.
Politely but firmly enforcing the time limits with the first speaker sends a clear message to any subsequent speakers that you are serious about keeping the agenda on track.
Finally, make sure that the meeting convener/host understands and agrees to the time limits and the strategies you will employ to get the content experts to comply with them.
In the end, effective “time management” in meetings is based on clear expectations, equitable enforcement of previous agreements and establishing trust with the convener and all participants, including the content experts.
Need help dealing with people who like to talk a lot – and the timid, silent ones? Contact us to schedule a free consultation to discuss your coaching needs.
IIFAC facilitators are firmly committed to the importance of breaks during meetings. (See April Coffee Break, Why your meetings need breaks.) We also recognize that getting participants back in the room after a break can be a challenge. Here are some strategies to consider.
1. Clarify the expectation. At the beginning of the session, propose the ground rule “Return on time after the breaks.” Explain that the purpose of this agreement is to
Optimize the use of the group´s time
Benefit from each person´s presence in the room
Verify that the participants are willing to respect this agreement. People generally will say yes, whether they mean it or not. Then ask, “Is there anyone who knows that he/she will not be able to return promptly (or not return at all) after the breaks because of other commitments?” If anyone admits that they might not return on time, ask the whole group if they are willing to make an exception for this person. Again, it is unlikely that anyone will object. Finally, thank the person for letting the group know and ask them to return as soon as possible. This quick process sends a clear message about the importance of post-break punctuality, while recognizing individual circumstances.
2. Announce exactly how long the break will last. Before participants leave the room, specify the exact time that the group process will resume. Be specific. Write the time in the agenda or some other visible place. Repeat three times, loudly.
3. Mention what will happen immediately after the break. Referring to what comes next on the agenda reminds people why they are meeting and the importance of moving forward together.
4. Give a three-minute warning. The facilitator or helpers should walk around the areas where people are taking their break and remind them that the next session is about to begin. Ringing a bell or other instrument can help.
5. Offer incentives. Promise a prize to the tables that have all of their members seated and ready to work at the established time. (Obviously, this strategy only works in situations where participants are seated at tables.) Distribute chocolates or caramels to the winners and then get started.
6. Impose sanctions. Some groups require that the last person to enter must sing a song. Variations include tell a joke or pay a fine. The threat of this public humiliation is enough to get most people back on time. (Note: Ana has used this strategy to good effect. Bea finds it to be insulting and more of a distraction than a help and does not use it. Be sure to consider both the culture of the group and your own willingness to enforce this norm before proposing it.)
Need help with time managment in your meetings? Contact us to schedule a free consultation to discuss your coaching needs.
Often the only food offered is a box of inexpensive cookies or a bag of donuts, high in calories and low in nutritional value.
Clearly, no one has put much thought into how the presence or absence of snacks can affect the productivity and good will of meeting participants.
Sharing food is a way that human beings say “Welcome”, “We value your presence” and, in the case of meetings, “We need you to be focused and alert, so we have provided some treats to fuel your mind and body.”
We must remember that food and water are basic human needs. When these are neglected, people can become quarrelsome, impatient, uncooperative and unable to think clearly.
Another factor in the “food equation” is the diversity of individual food preferences and requirements of meeting participants. Vegetarian? Vegan? Kosher? No salt? Dairy free? Nut allergies? Gluten free? No sugar? Organic? Locally grown?
And remember, we are only talking about the refreshments served during the breaks, not the main meals!
Here some suggestions for turning the snack table into a source of positive energy for the group:
Offer a variety of beverages, including
Regular and decaf coffee
Black, green and herbal teas
Milk and non-dairy creamer
Offer a variety of snacks, such as
Fresh or dry fruit
Raw vegetables (depending on the time of day)
Hard boiled eggs
For special occasions, consider these options
Local specialties, preferably not laden with sugar
Home-made treats prepared by meeting participants
Key message: Put some thought into the snacks offered at your meetings. Poll the attendees about their preferences and dietary needs. Vary the selection to surprise and delight your participants.
What are the refreshments you love (or hate) to see on the Coffee Break table?
Need help with meeting logistics? Contact us to schedule a free consultation to discuss your coaching needs.
Consider the language we use to name the elements of most large meetings:
Dignitaries on a podium (raised platform) in the front of an auditorium
Plenary sessions that everyone is expected to attend
Agendas packed with speakers
“Podium, ” “auditorium, ” “plenary,” and “agenda” are words with Latin roots that come to us from the European academic and religious institutions of the late Middle Ages.
Embedded in these ancient words and practices is a hierarchical, one-way communication model that no long serves the needs of contemporary organizations. In today´s world there is no justification for bringing people together, subjecting them to lectures from the front of the room and then expecting learning or change to take place.
Nevertheless, otherwise intelligent people, charged with the responsibility of organizing large face-to-face meetings, still default to the medieval model.
To transform today´s meetings and conferences we need to focus less attention on the podium in the front of the room and think seriously about the sea of people seated in the audience. In fact, we must stop thinking of them as “audience” (those who listen) and consider ways to convert them into active participants in the discussion.
We need to stop accepting a 10-minute question and answer session at the end of a long speech as a substitute for meaningful interaction with speakers and their ideas.
We must recognize that a standard panel discussion only engages the panelists, relegating everyone else to the category of passive listeners.
We need to question the usefulness of meeting in a space where the chairs are bolted to the floor, making it impossible to create small groups.
We should explore ways to integrate technologies such as keyboards and tablets into the proceedings, using them to generate ideas or document results.
We should look carefully at highly interactive methods such as World Café and Open Space as ways to stimulate meaningful conversations and dynamic interactions among those present.
With a deep bow of respect to the past, we need to bring our meeting practices into the 21st century.
Need help updating your large meeting or conference design? Contact us to schedule a free consultation to discuss your coaching needs.